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Publications

You may find these publications very useful.

2015

Paul Gertler; Manisha Shah; Maria Laura Alzua; Lisa Cameron; Sebastian Martinez; Sumeet Patil.  “How does Health Promotion Work?  Evidence from the Dirty Business of Eliminating Open Defecation.” NBER Working Paper No. 20997, March 2015.  PLEASE NOTE: EDI collected the endline data and not the baseline data for this WSP project.

Link here (NBER subscription required)

2012

Yadav, P., Cohen, J., Alphs, S., Arkedis, J., Larson, P., Massaga, J. and Sabot, O. 2012 “Trends in availability and prices of subsidized ACT over the first year of the AMFm: evidence from remote regions of Tanzania” Malaria Journal 11:299
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Quin, S. and Fafchamps, M. 2012. Results of Sample Surveys of Firms”, chapter 5 in Dinh, H. and Clarke, G. (eds) Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Africa: an empirical analysis, The World Bank, Washington DC.
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Dillon, Andrew & Bardasi, Elena & Beegle, Kathleen & Serneels, Pieter. 2012. Explaining Variation
in Child Labor Statistics. Journal of Development Economics, 98 (1): 136-147.

Caeyers, B., Chalmers, N. and De Weerdt, J. 2012. Improving Consumption Measurement and other Survey Data through CAPI: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment”, Journal of Development Economics 98:19-33
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Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J., Friedman J. and Gibson, J. “Methods of Household Consumption Measurement through Surveys: Experimental Results from Tanzania”, Journal of Development Economics 98:3-18
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2011

De Weerdt, J. “Mobility Pays”, Rural 21, January 2011 edition (popularizing article, summarizing some of the technical work on migration listed below)
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Dillon, B. 2011. Using mobile phones to collect panel data in developing countries. Journal of International Development. 24(4): 518–527

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon.2011. Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracking Survey. Review of Economics and Statistics 93(3): 1010–1033

De Weerdt, J. and Fafchamps, M. 2011. Social Identity and the Formation of Health Insurance Networks. Journal of Development Studies 47(8): 1152-1177

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon.2011. 2011 Patterns of Migration in Tanzania. Chapter 2 in Jennica Larrison, Edmundo Murrugarra and Marcin Sasin (eds) “Migration and Poverty: Towards Better Migration Opportunities For the Poor”,The World Bank

 

2010

Mother Is ‘More Essential’ to Orphans Than Breadwinner Father, Research Suggests
Science Daily

Orphanhood and Human Capital Destruction: Is there Persistence into Adulthood? – Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon
Demography, Vol. 47(1): 163-180
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Moving out of Poverty in Tanzania: Evidence from Kagera – Joachim De Weerdt
Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 46(2): 331-349
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2009

Moving Away from Home and Away from Poverty – Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon
Contribution to Dilip Ratha’s “People Move” Blog
Go to Blog Entry

THE INTERGENERATIONAL IMPACT OF THE AFRICAN ORPHANS CRISIS: A COHORT STUDY FROM AN HIV/AIDS AFFECTED AREA – Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon
International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 38(2):561-568
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2008

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. 2008. “Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracking Survey”. Policy Research Working Paper, WPS 4798, World Bank, Washington DC.
Go to Download Site

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF HIV/AIDS – Kathleen Beegle and Joachim De Weerdt
AIDS Forthcoming
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ADULT MORTALITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE AGE OF HIV/AIDS – Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon
Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 56, No. 2: 299-326
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FIELD NOTES ON ADMINISTERING SHOCK MODULES – Joachim De Weerdt
Journal of International Development, Vol. 20, pp. 398-402
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2007

MEMBERSHIP-BASED INDIGENOUS INSURANCE ASSOCIATIONS – Joachim De Weerdt, Stefan Dercon, Tessa Bold and Alula Pankhurst
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in: Martha Chen, Renana Jhabvala, Ravi Kanbur, Carol Richards (eds.), “Membership Based Organisations of the Poor”, Routledge Download Brief Volume Overview
View / Buy book at Routledge

Moving out of Poverty in Tanzania’s Kagera Region
ID21 Research Highlight

 

2006

RISK-SHARING NETWORKS AND INSURANCE AGAINST ILLNESS – Stefan Dercon and Joachim De Weerdt
Jourrnal of Development Economics, Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 337-356.
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On-line at Science Direct

GROUP-BASED FUNERAL INSURANCE IN ETHIOPIA AND TANZANIA – Stefan Dercon, Tessa Bold, Joachim De Weerdt and Alula Pankhurst, World Development, Vol 34, Issue 4, pp. 685-703
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ORPHANHOOD AND THE LONG-TERM IMPACT ON CHILDREN – Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 88, No. 5, pp. 1266-1277.
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2005

CWIQ COMPARATIVE STUDY: COMPARISON OF 16 BASELINE SURVEYS ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN KAGERA, SHINYANGA AND NORTHERN HIGHLANDS – Joachim De Weerdt, Tadeo Rweyemamu and James Mitchener
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KONDOA CWIQ BASELINE SURVEY ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN RURAL SHINYANGA DISTRICTS – Sonya Krutikov, Joachim De Weerdt, and James Mitchener
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MBULU CWIQ BASELINE SURVEY ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN RURAL SHINYANGA DISTRICTS – Sonya Krutikov, Joachim De Weerdt and James Mitchener
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MONDULI CWIQ BASELINE SURVEY ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN RURAL SHINYANGA DISTRICTS – Sonya Krutikov, Joachim De Weerdt and James Mitchener
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KARATU CWIQ BASELINE SURVEY ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN RURAL SHINYANGA DISTRICTS – Sonya Krutikov, Joachim De Weerdt and James Mitchener
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MEASURING RISK PERCEPTIONS: WHY AND HOW – Joachim De Weerdt
Social Protection Discussion Papers Series, No. 0503, World Bank, Washington DC
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MEMBERSHIP-BASED INDIGENOUS INSURANCE ASSOCIATIONS – Joachim De Weerdt, Stefan Dercon, Tessa Bold and Alula Pankhurst, Forthcoming in Kanbur, R. (ed.), “Membership Based Organisations of the Poor”, Routledge.
This edited volume grew from a conference organised by Cornell University and SEWA. Other contributions can be found on the conference website

 

2004

RISK-SHARING AND ENDOGENOUS NETWORK FORMATION – Chapter 10 in “Insurance against Poverty”, ed. Stefan Dercon Oxford University Press, 2004
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Other contribution to this book can be found here

RURAL INCOME DYNAMICS IN KAGERA REGION, TANZANIA – Flora Kessy
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RURAL SHINYANGA CWIQ BASELINE SURVEY ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN RURAL SHINYANGA DISTRICTS – Sonya Krutikov, Joachim De Weerdt, Tadeo Rweyemamu and James Mitchener
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KAGERA RURAL CWIQ BASELINE SURVEY ON POVERTY, WELFARE AND SERVICES IN KAGERA RURAL DISTRICTS – Sonya Krutikov and Joachim De Weerdt
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2003

ADOPTION OF SUPERIOR BANANA VARIETIES IN THE KAGERA REGION: ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CONSTRAINTS – Joachim De Weerdt
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DISENTANGLING NETWORKS: DEFINING AND ANALYZING COHESIVE SUGROUPS – Joachim De Weerdt and Dirk Van de gaer
paper presented at the 2003 ESEM in Stockholm
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2002

COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS IN RURAL TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE COMMUNITY OF NYAKATOKE, BUKOBA RURAL DISTRICT – Joachim De Weerdt
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The raw data from five rounds, collected between 1991-2004, are now publicly available.  This page intends to keep track of on-going and completed work using the KHDS data set. Papers based on the short-run KHDS-1 panel are listed below. In cases where copyright laws do not allow us to post published papers, please refer to the journal or e-mail the corresponding author

Research Papers Using the Long-term Panel

Hirvonen, K and Bie Lilleor, H.  2015.  Going Back Home:  Internal Return Migration in Rural Tanzania.  World Development, Vol. 70, June 2015 – Pages 186-202.

Download PDF:  Hirvonen_Lilleor_2015_WD_return_migration

Maystadt, JF, Duranton, G. 2014. The Development Push of Refugees: evidence from Tanzania. Economics Working Paper Series 19, University of Lancaster, Department of Economics.

Download Site

Maystadt, JF and Verwimp, P. (2014) “Winners and Losers among a Refugee-Hosting Population”, Econonomic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 62(4): 769-809.

Kudo, Y. (2014) “Female Migration for Marriage: Implications from the Land Reform in Rural Tanzania”, World Development, forthcoming.

Marie Castaing Gachassin (2013) Should I Stay or Should I Go? The Role of Roads in Migration Decisions, Journal of African Economies 22(5): p. 796-826.

Hirvonen, K. 2013. Measuring catch-up growth in malnourished populations. Annals of Human Biology, Annals of Human Biology, Early Online: 1–10, DOI: 10.3109/03014460.2013.827239.

McKay, A. and Perge, E. 2013. How Strong is the Evidence for the Existence of Poverty Traps? A Multi-country Assessment.
Journal of Development Studies
, Volume 49, Number 7, 1 July 2013 , pp. 877-897(21)

Bengtsson, N. 2013. Catholics versus Protestants: On the Benefit Incidence of Faith-Based Foreign Aid, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 61, No. 3 (April 2013), pp. 479-50

Christiaensen, C., De Weerdt, J. and Todo, Y. 2013. Urbanization and Poverty Reduction – The Role of Rural Diversification and Secondary Towns. Forthcoming in Agricultural Economics

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Peterman, A. (2012) “Widowhood and Asset Inheritance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from 15 Countries”Development Policy Review 30 (5): 543-571

Adhvaryu, A. and Nyshadham, A. (2012) “Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania”, The Journal of Human Resources, 47(2), pp. 364-396.

Kirchberger, K. and Mishili, F. 2011. “Agricultural Productivity Growth in Kagera between 1991 and 2004″, IGC Working Paper 11/0897.

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Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. (2011) “Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracking Survey”,Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 93(3): 1010–1033

Baez, Javier E. 2007. “Civil Wars Beyond their Borders: The Human Capital and Health Consequences of Hosting Refugees. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 96, pp. 391-408.

Download Previous IZA Discussion Paper

Guendel Rojas, Sebastian, Houngbonon, Georges and Tran, Viet-Anh (2011) “The importance of tracking in long-term household panel survey: evidence from the impact of orphanhood on human development in rural Tanzania”. Econometric Team Work from Paris School of Economics, Master in Public Policies and Development.
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Maystadt, Jean-François (2010). Conflict and Forced Migration. PhD Thesis, UNIVERSITÉ CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, 160 pp

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Hagen, J., Omar Mahmoud, T., Trofimenko, N. (2010). Orphanhood and Critical Periods in Children’s Human Capital Formation: Long-Run Evidence from North-Western Tanzania. Kiel Working Paper, 1649, 32 pp

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Opuni, M., Peterman, A. and Bishai, D. 2010 “Inequality in prime-age adult deaths in a high AIDS mortality setting:
Does the measure of economic status matter?” fortchoming in Health Economics.

Peterman, Amber. 2010. “Women’s property rights and gendered policies: Implications for women’s long-term welfare in rural Tanzania”, forthcoming Journal of Development Studies,

De Weerdt, J. 2010. “Moving out of Poverty in Tanzania: Evidence from Kagera”, forthcoming Journal of Development Studies

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Adhvaryu, A. and Beegle, K. 2009. The Long-run Impacts of Adult Deaths on Older Household Members in Tanzania. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5037.

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Troerup, S. and Mertz, O. 2009. Linking climate trends to coping strategies in northern Tanzania. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6. doi:10.1088/1755-1307/6/1/412005
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Berger, S. 2008. Understanding Disease Progression in the Kagera Region of Tanzania: A framework for efficien health care delivery. Thesis for Master of Public Policy at Georgetown Public Policy Institute

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Baez, J. 2007. Do Local Children Suffer from Foreign Refugees Inflows? Evidence from Host Communities in Northwestern Tanzania. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=975001

Go to SSRN

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. 2009. “Moving Away from Home and Away from Poverty”

Contribution to Dilip Ratha’s ” People Move” Blog

Go to Blog Entry

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. 2008. “Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracking Survey”. Policy Research Working Paper, WPS 4798, World Bank, Washington DC.
go to download site

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. 2008. “The Intergenerational Impact of the African Orphans Crisis: A Cohort Study from an HIV/AIDS Affected Area”. , Forthcoming: International Journal of Epidemiology (doi:10.1093/ije/dyn197) |
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Julie Litchfield & Thomas McGregor, 2008. “Poverty in Kagera, Tanzania: Characteristics, Causes and Constraints,” PRUS Working Papers 42, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex

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Lilleor, H. 2008. “Human Capital Diversification within the Household. Findings from Tanzania “, mimeo (PhD Chapter), University of Copenhagen

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Beegle, Kathleen; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti and Sofya Krutikova. 2008. The Consequences of Child Labor: Evidence from Longitdunial Data Rural Tanzania. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4677

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Alderman, H., Hoogeveen, J. and Rossi, M. (2008). “Preschool Nutrition and Subsequent Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from Tanzania” forthcoming in Economic Development and Cultural Change

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Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. (2007) “Adult Mortality and Economic Growth in the Age of HIV/AIDS”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 56, No. 2: 299-326

download pdf

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. 2008. “Orphanhood and Human Capital Destruction: Is there Persistence into Adulthood?” forthcoming: Demography

Ksoll, C. 2007. “Family Networks and Orphan Caretaking in Tanzania”, Department of Economics Series No. 361, Oxford University.

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Beegle, K., Krutikov, S. (2007)”Adult Mortality and Children’s Transition into Marriage”, World Bank Policy Research Report No. 4139, Washington, DC.

go to download page

Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J. and Dercon, S. (2006). “Orphanhood and the Long-term Impact on Children”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 88, No. 5, pp. 1266-1277

download pdf

Dercon, Stefan. 2007. “Fate and Fear: Risk and its Consequences in Africa.” Global Poverty Research Group. Working Paper No. 074 (forthcoming in Journal of African Economies)
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Udry, Christopher and Hyungi Woo. 2007. “Households and the Social Organization of Consumption in Southern Ghana.” African Studies Review. 50(2): 139-53.

Roberts, Peter, KC Shyam, and Cordula Rastogi (2006), “Rural Access Index: A Key Development Indicator,” Transport Papers No 10, Transport Sector Board, World Bank, Washington DC.

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Work in Progress (contact authors directly for latest versions)

Ikegami, M. 2009. Agricultural Productivity and Mortality: Evidence from Kagera, Tanzania, mimeo, ILRI Nairobi.

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Ikegami, M. 2008. Household Investment, Heterogeneous Productivity, and Poverty Dynamics: Theory and Evidence from kagera Tanzania. mimeo, University of Wisconsin-Madison,

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Rosati, Furio and Mariacristina Rossi (2008) “Liquidity Constraints, Uncertain Parental Income and Human Capital Accumulation”, mimeo, University of Rome.

Bengtsson, N. (2008) “Who benefits from faith-based foreign aid?”, Working Paper, Uppsala University.

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Anselmi (2007) “Social Learning in Health Behaviour: The Case of Mosquito Bed Nets in Tanzania”, A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Philosophy in Economics, Oxford University.

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Bengtsson, N. (2006) “Using Rainfall to Estimate the Effect of Body Weight to Transitory Changes in Household Expenditure”, mimeo, Uppsala University.

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Krutikov, S. (2006) “Impact of Child Labour on Educational Attainment in Adulthood: Evidence from Rural Tanzania”, mimeo, Oxford University

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Peterman, Amber. 2007. “Women’s property rights and gendered policies: Implications for women’s long-term welfare in rural Tanzania.” Dissertation. University of North Carolina.

Seebens, H. (2006) “The Contribution of Female non-farm Income to Poverty Reduction”. Paper prepared for the Tanzania Gender and Growth Assessment.

Simonsen, M. and Skipper, L. (2007) “Child Health in a Developing Country: Consequences for Short- and Medium Term Outcomes”, mimeo, University of Arhus and Institute for Local Government Studies.

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Research Papers using the short-term panel (1991-1994)

Corno, Lucia. 2013. “Learning (or not) in health seeking behavior: Evidence from rural Tanzania” , forthcoming in Economic Development and Cultural Change

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Ralitza Dimova Kunal Sen, “Is household income diversification a means of survival or a means of accumulation? Panel data evidence from Tanzania “, BWPI 122, Brooks World Poverty Institute, University of Manchester
Go to download


Udry, C. and H. Woo. 2007, Households and the Social Organization of Consumption in Southern Ghana. African Studies Review, Volume 50, Number 2, pp. 139-53.


Bengtsson, N., How responsive is body weight to transitory income changes? Evidence from rural Tanzania, Journal of Development Economics (2009), doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2009.01.002


Peterman, A. (2009) “Contraceptive use and women’s well-being: Spillover effects of family planning services in rural Tanzania.” Doctoral Dissertation: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Lassen, D. and Lilleor, H. (2008) “Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts: Evidence from Schooling and Remittances in Rural Tanzania”, mimeo, University of Copenhagen

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Beegle, K., R. Dehejia and R. Gatti. 2006. Child Labor and Agricultural Shocks. Journal of Development Economics 81(1): 80-96.


Alderman H., H. Hoogeveen and M. Rossi (2006). Reducing Child Malnutrition in Tanzania: Combined Effects of Income Growth and Program Interventions. Economics and Human Biology 4: 1-23

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Beegle, K.. 2005. Labor Effects of Adult Mortality in Tanzanian Households. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 53:3.

mail: Kathleen Beegle

Ainsworth, M., K. Beegle, and G. Koda. 2005. The impact of adult mortality and parental deaths on primary schooling in Northwestern Tanzania. Journal of Development Studies, Vol.41, No.3, April 2005, pp.412 – 439.

mail: Kathleen Beegle

Papa Seck, 2005. Do Parents Favor their Biological Offspring over Adopted Orphans? Theory and Evidence from Tanzania.Hunter College Department of Economics Working Papers 409, Hunter College Department of Economics.

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Alderman, H., Hoogeveen, H. and Rossi, C., 2005, “Reducing child malnutrition in Tanzania – combined effects of income growth and program interventions”, Policy Research Working Paper, WPS 3567, World Bank.

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Burke, K. and K. Beegle. 2004. Why children aren’t attending school: The case of Northwestern Tanzania. Journal of African Economies, Vol. 13, No. 2

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Lundberg, M., M. Over. and P. Mujinja. Do Savings Predict Death? Precautionary Savings During an Epidemic, manuscript prepared for UNAIDS, Geneva.

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Beegle, K. 2003. Labor Effects of Adult Mortality in Tanzanian Households. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3062, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank

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Beegle, K,. R. Dehejia, R. Gatti. 2003. Do Households Resort to Child Labor to Cope with Income Shocks? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3075, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

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Dayton, J. and M. Ainsworth. 2002. The elderly and AIDS: Coping strategies and health consequences in rural Tanzania. Social Science and Medicine 59: 2161-2172 (also Population Council Working Paper, no. 160, New York)

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Ainsworth, M. and J. Dayton. 2003. The impact of the AIDS epidemic on the health of the elderly in Tanzania. World Development 31(1): 131-148. Also World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 2649.

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Lundberg, M., M. Over, and P. Mujinja. 2000. Sources of Financial Assistance for Households Suffering an Adult Death in Kagera, Tanzania. South African Journal of Economics, 68:5:947-984. Also World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2508.

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Ainsworth, M. and I. Semali. 2000. “The impact of adult deaths on child health in Northwestern Tanzania”. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper no. 2266. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, New York City, March 1999, and the 2001 International Health Economics Association meetings in York, UK, July 2001.

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Ainsworth , M.and M. Over. 1997. Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. A World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press. 355 pages. Revised edition, 1999.

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Ainsworth, M., G. Koda, G. Lwihula, P. Mujinja, M. Over and I. Semali. 1992. Measuring the Economic Impact of Fatal Adult Illness in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Annotated Household Questionnaire. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, no. 90. Washington, D.C. The World Bank.

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Semali, I. and M. Ainsworth. 1995. “A profile of traditional healers in an area hard-hit by the AIDS epidemic: Kagera Region, Tanzania”. University of Dar es Salaam and The World Bank. August 17.

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Sahn, David E. and Stephen D. Younger. 2006. “Testing the Kuznets Curve for Countries and Households Using the Body Mass Index.” Strategies and Analysis for Growth and Access. Working Paper. September 2006.

Suliman, Eldaw Abdalla. 2005. “Orphanhood, fostering, and child well-being in Tanzania.” Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, United States

Ainsworth, M.and I. Semali. 1998. “Who dies from AIDS? Socioeconomic correlates of adult deaths in Kagera Region, Tanzania” in Ainsworth, Fransen and Over, eds. (1998). Confronting AIDS: Evidence from the Developing World Background Papers from the World Bank Policy Research Report, Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. Brussels: European Commission.

Ainsworth, M., D. Filmer and I. Semali. 1998. “The impact of AIDS mortality on individual fertility: Evidence from Tanzania” in M. Montgomery and B. Cohen, eds. From Death to Birth: Mortality Decline and Reproductive Change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ainsworth, M., S. Ghosh and I. Semali. 1995. “The impact of adult deaths on household composition in Kagera Region, Tanzania”. Preliminary results presented at the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, San Francisco, California, April 1995, and at the IXth International Conference on AIDS and STDs in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, December 1995.

Ainsworth , M.and G. Koda. 1993. “The impact of adult deaths on school enrollments and attendance in Northwestern Tanzania”. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1993.

Lundberg, M., M. Over. and P. Mujinja. Transfers and Household Welfare in Kagera, Tanzania. 2003. Prepared for UNAIDS. Presented to research seminar, University of East Anglia; the IAEN Economics of AIDS Symposium; the XIII International AIDS conference, Durban, South Africa, July 2000; and the International Health Economics Association Conference, July 2001, York, England

CWIQ currently constitutes one of the largest socio-economic household survey databases on Tanzania. Since 2003 EDI has interviewed roughly 20,000 households in 35 different districts. For 9 districts repeat surveys have been organised to track changes over time.

RATIONALE: Absence of district level survey data does not rhyme with the devolution of power to districts. Tanzania is undergoing a decentralisation process whereby each of its roughly 128 districts is becoming an increasingly important policy actor. A district taking on this challenge needs accurate information to monitor and develop its own policies. Much relevant information is currently not available as national statistics are not representative at district level and many of the routine data collection mechanisms are still under development. CWIQ then provides an attractive, one-stop survey-based method to collect basic development indicators. Furthermore, the survey results can be disseminated – through Swahili briefs and posters – to a district’s population; thus increasing the extent to which people are able to hold their local governments accountable. Exciting new ground is being broken on such population-wide dissemination by the Prime Minister’s Office.

METHODOLOGY: The data are collected through a small 10-page questionnaire (downloadable below), called the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ). The questionnaire and data software constitute an off-the-shelf survey package developed by the World Bank to produce standardised monitoring indicators of welfare. The questionnaire is purposively concise and is designed to collect information on household demographics, employment, education, health and nutrition as well as utilisation and satisfaction with social services. Questionnaires are scannable, with interviewers shading bubbles and writing numbers later recognised by the scanning software. The data system is fully automated allowing the results to roll out within weeks of the fieldwork.

FUNDING: projects are typically funded by organisations that care about making decentralisation work in Tanzania. CWIQ is a method to promote evidence-based policy formulation and debate in the district and a tool for the population to hold their local governments accountable. With funding from the RNE (Royal Netherlands Embassy) and SNV (Stichting Nederlands Vrijwilligers), CWIQ surveys were implemented between 2003-2005 in 16 districts. In 2006/07 PMO-RALG (Prime Minister’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Government) commissioned EDI to cover a further 28 districts. In 9 of these districts this constituted a repeat survey and thus a unique opportunity arises to monitor changes that occurred in the district over this time period.

DISSEMINATION: EDI disseminated the results of CWIQ on posters and briefs to district level stakeholders (councillors, district officials, NGOs, CBOs, Advocacy Groups, MPs, ‘interested citizens’, etc.), with the aim at district level, to: (i) promote evidence-based policy debate, (ii) promote evidence-based policy formulation, (iii) provide tools for district level M&E and (iv) increase accountability of LGA to citizens.

PUBLIC DOMAIN: Currently in the public domain are (i) all CWIQ reports – note that Shinyanga 2004 and Kagera 2003 reports are organised into one region-wide report (ii) Swahili and English briefs for 5 pilot dissemination districts funded by the Prime Minister’s Office – and (iii) raw data for all CWIQs conducted between 2003 and 2007.

 

LGA
REGION

FULL REPORT

BRIEFS

RAW DATA IN PUBLIC DOMAIN?
COMMISSIONED BY
Bariadi DC Shinyanga 2004 & 2006 YES RNE & PMO-RALG
Biharamulo DC Kagera 2003 YES RNE
Bukoba DC Kagera 2003 & 2006 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Bukombe DC Shinyanga 2004 & 2006 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Bunda DC Mara 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Chamwino DC Dodoma 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Dodoma MC Dodoma 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Hanang DC Manyara 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Kahama DC Shinyanga 2004 & 2006 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Karagwe DC Kagera 2003 & 2006 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Karatu DC Aursha 2005 YES SNV
Kasulu DC Kigoma 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Kibondo DC Kigoma 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Kigoma DC Kigoma 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Kilosa DC Morogoro 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Kishapu DC Shinyanga 2004 & 2007 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Kondoa DC Dodoma 2005 YES SNV
Korogwe DC Dodoma 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Maswa DC Shinyanga 2004 & 2007 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Mbulu DC Manyara 2005 YES SNV
Monduli DC Arusha 2005 YES SNV
Meatu DC Shinyanga 2004 & 2007 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Morogoro DC Morogoro 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Mpwapwa DC Dodoma 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Muheza DC Tanga 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Muleba DC Kagera 2003 YES RNE
Musoma DC Mara 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Ngara DC Kagera 2003 & 2006 YES, BOTH YEARS RNE & PMO-RALG
Ngorongoro DC Arusha 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Rufiji DC Pwani 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Shinyanga DC Shinyanga 2004 YES RNE
Shinyanga MC Shinyanga 2006 YES PMO-RALG
Singida DC Singida 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Tanga MC Tanga 2007 YES PMO-RALG
Temeke MC Dar 2007 YES PMO-RALG

 

DC: District Council (i.e. rural areas)

MC: Municipal Council (i.e. urban areas)

PMO-RALG: Prime Minister’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Government

RNE: Royal Netherlands Embassy

SNV: Stichting Nederlands Vrijwilligers

Download Comparative Report

A Comparative Report comparing results of 16 CWIQ surveys in Shinyanga, Kagera and the Northern Highlands

Download Raw Data Sets

Kagera 2003 data (5 districts)

Shinyanga 2004 data (7 districts)

SNV 2005 data (4 districts)

PMO-RALG 2006/07 data (28 districts). Download also the 2006/07 CWIQ Questionnaire (in Swahili) and the 2006/07 Data Dictionary (doubles as translation for questionniare).

For data documentation please refer to the manuals.

Please drop me an e-mail at j.deweerdt@edi-africa.com to say for what purpose you are using these data and keep me informed of analysis based on them.

SHWALITA – probably the most exotic name that has ever been conjured up for an EDI research project – is short for ‘Survey of Household Welfare and Labour in Tanzania’. It is a unique experiment in survey design that Joachim De Weerdt and his team at EDI conducted on behalf of the University of Dar es Salaam and the World Bank. The project was developed by the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Team in the World Bank in collaboration with the University of Dar es Salaam and EDI. The survey experiment is an important component of the LSMS’ multi-year research agenda in survey methodology (LSMS Phase IV). The consumption experiments in the survey benefited from substantial inputs from John Gibsonat the Waikato Management School, Adolf Mkenda at the University of Dar es Salaam, Jed Friedman and Peter Lanjouw from the World Bank; the labor experiments from the inputs of Elena Bardasi from the World Bank and Andrew Dillon from IFPRI; and the subjective welfare experiment from inputs by and Adelbertus Kamanzi from Uganda Martyrs’ University. Kathleen Beegle of the LSMS team is task manager of the project. Other members of the LSMS team include Kinnon Scott, Calogero Carletto, Diane Steele and Kristen Himelein.

This 4,000 household survey randomly assigns 8 slightly different survey modules to its respondents. The survey modules reproduce 8 different ways in which research projects across the globe have aimed at measuring households’ welfare. In addition, the instruments aim at validating the way labour allocation and subjective welfare can be measured. By randomly assigning households to certain modules, the goal is to highlight differences in outcomes that are purely related to the research design, but do not reflect ‘real’ differences.

This survey consists of 3 separate experiments, carefully bundled into one survey: (i) consumption experiments (ii) labour module experiments (iii) subjective welfare experiments, conducted electronically on CWEST.

On this page you will first find publications made on this dataset and then some more detailed explanations of each of SHWALITA’s components, its sample and cluster locations.

Rationale

The rationale behind the CONSUMPTION EXPERIMENTS comes from the observation that there are large and growing gaps between micro and macro estimates of household consumption. These discrepancies have profound implications for measuring global progress in poverty reduction and the effect of economic growth on that process. Currently it is difficult to reconcile these differences due to the wide variation in methods used to measure household consumption. While macro measures are broadly consistent around the world, under the SNA framework, micro measures of household consumption have no such standardization. Household expenditure surveys vary widely across many dimensions, including: the method of data capture (diary versus recall), the level of respondent (individual versus household), the length of the reference period for which consumption is reported (varying from 3 days, to one week, to one year) and the degree of commodity detail in recall surveys (varying from less than 20 to over 400 items). These variations occur both across countries and also over time as statistical offices alter survey design, with little understanding of the implications of such changes for spatially and temporally consistent measurement of household consumption and poverty. This variation hampers both cross-country studies of poverty and well-being measures as well as measuring poverty trends within country. This experiment implements alternative methods to measure household consumption. The researchers developed eight alternative consumption questionnaires which were randomly distributed across 4,000 households. These eight designs vary by method (3 diaries and 5 recall modules), length of reference period in recall modules, and the number of items in the recall modules. In addition to assessing how the alternative methods affect consumption calculations and household rankings, the evaluation will include a comparison of costs across numerous dimensions: length of field work (in part based on length of interview which will be recorded), coding and data entry inter alia. The study also assesses the sensitivity (robustness) of poverty line calculations where the food poverty is based on calorie assignment of food groups in turn affected by level of disaggregation of food items.

The LABOUR EXPERIMENTS assess the effect of different ways of collecting labour statistics. It uses two different modules, a long module and a short module, and administers each to either the person him/herself or to someone else in the household answering on their behalf (a proxy respondent). Both proxy respondents and self-reporting respondents are sampled randomly from the roster of household members.

The SUBJECTIVE WELFARE EXPERIMENTS use an innovative approach to enhance comparability of subjective welfare questions. The technique, developed in political sciences by Gary King, involves the respondent to provide scaled answers on qualitative questions (on a scale of 1 to 5, how do you feel about….). In order to ‘anchor’ the response the respondent is given a ‘vignette’ a short, but powerful story about a fictitious person and is then asked to place this person on the same scale. The placing of the vignette on the same scale allows answers to become more comparable across households, communities and countries. Data were captured electronically through CWEST.

 

Sampling & Module Assignment

The 7 districts covered in this project were previously surveyed through EDI’s CWIQ project, in which a sample of households was drawn to be representative at district level. Data from the 2002 Census was used to put together a list of all villages in the district. In the first stage of the sampling process villages were chosen proportional to their population size. In a second stage the sub-village (kitongoji) was chosen within the village through simple random sampling. In the selected sub-village, or cluster all households were listed. Shwalita makes use of CWIQ’s sampling frame to randomly select 24 clusters out of the 30 CWIQ clusters and draw its random sample of households from the CWIQ listing forms. The following table shows the selected districts and is sorted in the order in which they will be visited.

 

District region urban/rural adult literacy rate according to CWIQ Available CWIQ documents
Bukoba Rural Kagera
rural
81%
reportbrief ENGbrief SWA
Karagwe Kagera
rural
67%
reportbrief ENGbrief SWA
Bukombe Shinyanga
rural
62%
reportbrief ENGbrief SWA
Bariadi Shinyanga
rural
54%
report
Rufiji Pwani
rural
61%
reportbrief ENGbrief SWA
Temeke Dar es Salaam
urban
90%
reportbrief ENGbrief SWA
Dodoma Urban Dodoma
urban
75%
report

 

The following 8 modules are randomly assigned to 3 households within each cluster:

Consumption Recall and Labour Modules:

module No. type of labour module recall length in consumption module type of item list in consumption module total sample size(24 clusters in each of 7 districts) downloads questionnaires
1 short labour module with reporting by proxy respondent

14 days

long item list 504 obs.(1/3 without labour module) ENGLISHSWAHILI
2 short labour module with members self-reporting

7 days

long item list 504 obs.(1/3 without labour module) ENGLISHSWAHILI
3 long labour module with reporting by proxy respondent

7 days

short subset of long list 504 obs.(1/3 without labour module) ENGLISHSWAHILI
4 long labour module with members self-reporting 7 days short collapsed list (aggregation of items from long list) 504 obs.(1/3 without labour module) ENGLISHSWAHILI
5 NONE 1 month

long item list 504 obs. ENGLISHSWAHILI

 

Diaries:

Module No. level at which administered diary period frequency of visits by interviewer frequency of visits by locally recruited assistant total sample size(24 clusters in each of 7 districts) downloads
6 individual 14 days frequent visits:all individuals on days 1-3-5-8-10-12-15 every day 504 ENGLISHSWAHILI
7 household 14 days frequent visits:all households on days 1-3-5-8-10-12-15 every day 504 ENGLISHSWAHILI
8 household 14 days infrequent visits:Literate households: days 1-8-15.Illiterate households days 1-3-5-8-10-12-15 no visits 504 ENGLISHSWAHILI

Download diary household questionnaire (administered during first and last vist): ENGLISHSWAHILI

Finally, the subjective welfare questionnaire will be administered to 576 households (4 households in each of 24 clusters in each of 6 districts) and will be downloadable from this site soon.

The survey teams will visit 168 communities. In each community the nearby shops, stalls and markets will be visited to collect local price data (download price questionnaire). Additionally, a structured community questionnaire will be administered to key informants in each community (download Englishdownload Swahili). The community questionnaire contains a price opinion section as an alternative way to collect prices. For a good discussion on various price collection mechanisms in surveys seeGibson and Rozelle‘s WBER article.

 

Timing

EDI began piloting questionnaires and training interviewers from June 2007 onwards. Fieldwork started beginning of September 2007 and is expected to last till end of June 2008. In order to keep tight control implementation, the fieldwork is conducted by a relatively small number of 12 interviewers and spread over a longer time period. Such a set-up avoids the typical co-ordination problems faced by larger-scale fast-moving set-ups and allows for maximum control from the project management and co-ordination team. Ultimately it seems like a necessary condition to achieve an acceptable level of non-sampling error.

This assignment is being executed by the following members of staff at EDI:
Project Direction: Joachim De Weerdt
Management and Co-ordination: Respichius Mitti and Abida Nungu
Field Supervision: George Musikula, Davis Matovu, Josephine Rugomora and Pius Sosthenes
Enumeration: Abbanove Gabba, Aissa Issa, Faustine Misinde, Felix Kapinga, Geofrey Bakari, Honoratha Wyclife, Jamary Idrisa, Jesca Nkonjelwa, Kamugisha Robert, Makarius Kiyonga, Resty Simon, Hildephonce Muhashani
Data Entry Co-ordination: Thadeus Rweyemamu
Data Entry Operation: George Gabriel, Justina Katoke, Amina Suedi, Frida George

Publications resulting from this project:

Bardasi, E., K. Beegle, A. Dillon, and P. Serneels (2010) “Do Labor Statistics Depend on How and to Whom the Questions are Asked? Results from a Survey Experiment in Tanzania” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5192, World Bank, Washington DC.
Go to download site

Dillon, Andrew & Bardasi, Elena & Beegle, Kathleen & Serneels, Pieter. 2012. Explaining Variation
in Child Labor Statistics. Journal of Development Economics, 98 (1): 136-147.

Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt, Jed Friedman and John Gibson “Methods of Household Consumption Measurement through Surveys: Experimental Results from Tanzania”, Journal of Development Economics 98:3-18

Gibson, John, Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt and Jed Friedman. 2013. What Does Variation in Household Survey Methods Reveal About the Nature of Measurement Errors in Consumption Estimates? World Bank Policy Research Working paper No. 6372

De Weerdt, J., Beegle, K., Friedman, J. and Gibson, J. 2013. The Challenge of Measuring Hunger.

Our researchers are encouraged to provide input on a variety of research projects.  Below are some of the resulting papers:

PAPERS BY Dr. JOACHIM De WEERDT:

Published Work:

TITLE
CO-AUTHORS

JOURNAL OR VOLUME

(impact factor if bio-medical journal)

YEAR
What Does Variation in Household Survey Methods Reveal About the Nature of Measurement Errors in Consumption Estimates? download working paper

John Gibson

Kathleen Beegle

Jed Friedman

Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics Forthcoming Also Policy Research Working Paper Series, WPS6372, World Bank 2014
Urbanization and Poverty Reduction – The Role of Rural Diversification and Secondary Towns download pdf Luc Christiaensen Yasuyuki Todo Agricultural Economics Vol. 44: 447-459 2013
Improving Consumption Measurement and other Survey Data through CAPI: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

download pdf

journal version

Bet Caeyers Neil ChalmersJournal of Development Economics Vol. 98: 19–332012Methods of Household Consumption Measurement through Surveys: Experimental Results from Tanzania

download pdf

journal version

Kathleen Beegle Jed Friedman John GibsonJournal of Development Economics Vol. 98: 3-18 Also Policy Research Working Paper Series, WPS5501, World Bank2012

Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracking Survey

download pdf

See also:

People Move Blog

Rural21 popularising article

Kathleen Beegle

Stefan Dercon

Review of Economics and Statistics

Vol. 93(3): 1010–1033

2011Social Identity and the Formation of Health Insurance Networks

download pdf

Marcel FafchampsJournal of Development Studies Vol. 47(8): 1152–11772011Patterns of Migration in Tanzania

read book at google books

read book at issuu

Kathleen Beegle Stefan DerconThe World Bank Chapter 2 in Jennica Larrison, Edmundo Murrugarra and Marcin Sasin (eds) “Migration and Poverty: Towards Better Migration Opportunities For the Poor”, pages 13-342011Orphanhood and Human Capital Destruction: Is there Persistence into Adulthood?

download pdf

Journal version

See also: article in The Guardian

Kathleen Beegle

Stefan Dercon

Demography

Vol. 47(1): 163-180

2010Moving out of Poverty in Tanzania: Evidence from Kagera

download pdf

download journal article

global study website

See also: ID21 summary

noneJournal of Development Studies Vol. 46(2): 331-3492010The Intergenerational Impact of the African Orphans Crisis: A Cohort Study from an HIV/AIDS Affected Area download pdf

Kathleen Beegle

Stefan Dercon

International Journal of Epidemiology (impact factor = 6.41)

Vol. 38(2):561-568

2009

Methodological Issues in the Study of the Socioeconomic Consequences of HIV/AIDS download pdf

Kathleen Beegle

AIDS (impact factor = 6.25)

Vol. 22, Suppl 1: S89-94

2008

Adult Mortality and Economic Growth in the Age of HIV/AIDS

download pdf

Kathleen Beegle

Stefan Dercon

Economic Development and Cultural Change

Vol. 56, No. 2: 299-326

2008

Field Notes on Administering Shock Modules

download pdf

none

Journal of International Development

Vol. 20: 398-402

2008Membership-based Indigenous Insurance Associations

download pdf

Stefan Dercon

Tessa Bold

Alula Pankhurst

Routledge

Chapter 9 in Martha Chen, Renana Jhabvala, Ravi Kanbur, Carol Richards (eds.), “Membership Based Organisations of the Poor”, pages 157-176.

Download Brief Volume Overview

View/buy book at routledge

2007

Risk-sharing Networks and Insurance Against Illness

download pdf

on-line at science direct

Stefan Dercon

Journal of Development Economics

Vol. 81, No. 2: 337-356

2006

Orphanhood and the Long-run Impact on Children

download pdf

Kathleen Beegle

Stefan Dercon

American Journal of Agricultural Economics

Vol. 88, No. 5: 1266-1277

2006

Group-based Funeral Insurance in Ethiopia and Tanzania

download pdf

Stefan Dercon

Tessa Bold

Alula Pankhurst

World Development

Vol. 34, No. 4: 685-703

2006

Risk-sharing and Endogenous Network Formation

download

noneOxford University Press chapter 10 in Dercon, S. (ed.) “Insurance Against Poverty”, pp: 197-216. The same article appeared originally in 2002 as a WIDER working paper – download.2004

Commissioned Work:

TITLE CO-AUTHORS Organisation/Series YEAR
Mobility Pays download pdf none Rural 21 2011
Measuring Risk Perceptions: why and how

download pdf

none

World Bank

Social Protection Discussion Papers Series

No. 0533

2005
Extending Insurance? Funeral Associations in Ethiopia and Tanzania

Stefan Dercon

Tessa Bold

Alula Pankhurst

OECD Development Centre Working Paper Series

No. 240

2004

CWIQ reports

(for dozens of Tanzanian districts – for a complete list of reports click here)

various
Tanzania’s Prime Minister’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Goverance, Netherlands Embassy and SNV
ongoing

Adoption of Superior Banana Varieties in the Kagera Region: accomplishments and constraints

download pdf

none Belgian Government (BTC) 2003
Community Organisations in Rural Tanzania: a Case Study of the Community of Nyakatoke

download pdf

none University of Leuven & EDI 2002
Poverty in Tanzania none

Belgian Government

Policy Preparatory Report, BVO/97.2, DGIS

1997

Currently working on :

TITLE CO-AUTHORS Institution
Risk Sharing and Internal MigrationLatest version

Previous version: World Bank Policy Research Working Paper WPS6429

Kalle Hirvonen

University of Sussex

The Challenge of Measuring Hunger

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper WPS6736

See also blogposts at VoxEU and Development Impact

Kathleen Beegle

John Gibson

Jed Friedman

World Bank and University of Waikato
Inter-household variation in prices: who pays more and why?

Brian Dillon

Ted O’Donoghue

Cornell and Harvard
Asymmetry of Information and Transfers within Extended Family NetworksIZA Working Paper 8395CReAM Discussion Paper 8395CEPR Discussion Paper 10125

Garance Genicot

Alice Mesnard

Georgetown and City University L ondon

Insurance and re-insurance markets in rural Tanzania

Toan Quy-Toan

Markus Goldstein

The World Bank

Disentangling Networks: Defining and Analysing Cohesive Subgroups

download pdf

Dirk Van de gaer

University of Ghent